By Theodore Von Karman
Charming, reader-friendly chronicle by means of a well-known pioneer in aerodynamic learn lines the advance of dynamic flight from the time of Newton during the twentieth century. It recounts struggles of engineers and physicists with difficulties linked to elevate, drag, balance, aeroelasticity, and the sound barrier. seventy two figures. 1957 version.
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Extra info for Aerodynamics
If ␣ : 0, the relationship between maximum rotational speed V and tensile stress of the closed-loop (curve) cable is: V = . 2): Eϭ V2 1 . 4 Maximum distance The maximum distance L [km] between supports of the suspension system (without wings) for h ϽϽ R, where R ϭ 6378 km, and the radius of the Earth can be found from geometry. 4) where h [km] is the altitude of support. 5 Amount of sag ⌬H of the cable The amount of sag ⌬H of the cable (from its weight and the curvature of the Earth) can be found from the balance between weight and stress.
Traditional carbon fibers show high strength and stiffness, but fall far short of the theoretical in-plane strength of graphite layers (an order of magnitude lower). Nanotubes come close to being the best fiber that can be made from graphite structure. For example, whiskers made from CNT have a tensile strength of 200 GPa and Young’s modulus of over 1 TPa (1999). The theory predicts 1 TPa and Young modulus 1–5 TPa. 8 g/cm3 for steel). Specific strength (strength/density) is important in the design of our transportation system and space elevator; nanotubes have this value at least two orders of magnitude greater than steel.
4 Several new non-rockets methods were also proposed by author at the World Space Congress-2002, Houston, USA, 10–19 October 2002. The space elevator requires very strong nanotubes, as well as rockets and high technology for the initial development. The tube air rocket and non-rocket systems require more detailed research. 14 at World Space Congress-2002, 10–19 October, Houston, TX, USA, and as variant No. 8057 at symposium The Next 100 years, 14–17 July 2003, Dayton, OH, USA. 39 40 is not realistic at the present time.
Aerodynamics by Theodore Von Karman