By Steven B. Webb, Marcelo M. Giugale
The 3 forces of democratization, decentralization, and improvement have swept internationally the decade and redrawn the maps of politics, energy, and prosperity. smooth Mexico has been totally engaged within the trio, making it a wealthy case research. lately, more suitable political pageant has redistributed decisionmaking throughout all degrees of presidency, making the govt extra dependable to the common citizen. It has additionally given subnational governments a renewed position as fiscal brokers. The taxation, spending, borrowing, and associations of Mexican states and municipalities at the moment are more and more below the rigor of marketplace self-discipline. The mixed, nearer scrutiny of citizens and financiers is making a new incentive framework for policymakers-a framework the place priceless reforms turn into either inescapable and, extra importantly, a perceived resource of strength gift. This booklet is the manufactured from the analytical paintings of a big variety of specialists, Mexican and overseas. within the booklet, the specialists record Mexico's decentralization event; conceptualize its major tendencies, guidelines, and innovations; and convey it into the sunshine of foreign comparability. They distill severe classes and demanding situations which are of relevance for Mexico, for Latin the USA and, in most cases, for nations which are embarking on a ways attaining decentralization efforts. This renders the amount an enormous contribution to our wisdom and pondering during this region; and a well timed one, considering decentralization is an irreversible method that's more likely to proceed occupying policymakers for years yet to come.
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Extra resources for Achievements and challenges of fiscal decentralization: lessons from Mexico
The states are legally responsible for fiscal control of municipalities. Although in principle each level of government should have its own independent controls, the federal level has organized arrangements that provide the basis for strengthening controls at all levels during the transition to a more decentralized system. Budget Coordination At present, budget coordination in Mexico involves primarily the harmonization of spending priorities at different levels of government. Mechanisms are different for federal-state budget coordination and for state-municipal coordination, and for federal-municipal coordination.
In the education sector, staffing in 1992 is the base from which allocations are adjusted Page 14 at the margin for inflation and population growth, and sometimes increased further by special request. Although this system does not explicitly penalize states that have controlled costs since 1992, neither does it penalize those that fail to improve efficiency, and it actually hurts states that improve student attendance rates, in the sense that they have fewer resources per attending student. In health, the allocation is still based mainly on the current number of establishments and staffing, but the system has improved since 1996.
Currently they are legally prohibited from taxing interstate trade and some excises. 5 percent of total revenues of states (other than the Federal District). Payroll taxes are the most important, levied in 23 of the 32 states. 5 to 4 percent, with most rates in the range of 1 to 2 percent of payrolls (18 states). Only one state has a rate above 2 percent. The definitions of taxpayers are generally similar, but tax bases and exemptions differ substantially across states. The structure of these taxes is not consistent with the bases for the federal payroll taxes that finance social security and housing; making them more consistent would reduce the costs of enforcement and of compliance (and audit) for firms operating in more than one state.
Achievements and challenges of fiscal decentralization: lessons from Mexico by Steven B. Webb, Marcelo M. Giugale