By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli
This Italian reference grammar offers scholars, lecturers and others drawn to the Italian language with a accomplished, available and jargon-free consultant to the kinds and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of data of the language, rookies of Italian will locate this publication necessary: it offers transparent and particular causes of every thing from the main simple proof similar to the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the types of the item, to extra complicated issues equivalent to some of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is exotic from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place acceptable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference software: vast cross-referencing permits readers to quick locate the data they require, and likewise stimulates them to find new, similar evidence.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)
Very many native speakers of Italian do not systematically make the distinctions between these vowels (except e vs. è) as prescribed by more conservative grammars, and based on central Italian (particularly Florentine) pronunciation. Indeed it has been argued2 that learners should not be required to 2 See Lepschy (1964); also Lepschy and Lepschy (1988: 90). 8 Spelling and punctuation acquire these distinctions, and the foreign learner is hardly ever likely to be misunderstood for using the ‘wrong’ vowel.
Minestrone’ ‘little boy’ ‘American’ ‘fabulous’ irlandese forestiero macellaio faccenduola ‘Irish’ ‘stranger’ ‘butcher’ ‘little business’ amavo cantiamo pensate etc. ‘I loved’ ‘we sing’ ‘you think’ ﬁnite amavamo ﬁnivate ‘you ﬁnish’ ‘we loved’ ‘you ﬁnished’ However, third person plurals in -ano, -ono, -ino, -ero, and ﬁrst person plural imperfect subjunctive forms in -ssimo are ‘parole sdrucciole’. g. -issimo, -errimo, -evole, -abile, -ognolo, -icolo, -ag(g)ine, -ologo) are typically ‘sdrucciole’: bellissimo simpaticissimo miserrimo deplorevole probabile ‘most beautiful’ ‘extremely nice’ ‘most wretched’ ‘deplorable’ ‘probable’ verdognolo ridicolo stupidaggine geologo etc.
A clue that the pronunciation is [e] or [o] may also be available from related English and modern Italian words, originally ‘borrowed’ from Latin,3 which contain i and u respectively: vetro [ vetro] capello [ka pello] legno [ le 3 o] vitreous vitreo capillary capillare ligneous ligneo molto [ molto] multitude corrotto [kor rotto] corrupt corruzione current corro [ korro] A knowledge of Latin itself is helpful, since Latin words containing stressed short i and u, or long e and o, generally show closed mid vowels [e] and [o] in Italian, whilst Latin words in short e and o usually have [ε] and [ɔ] in Italian.
A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition) by Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli