By Frank B. Golley
The surroundings concept-the concept that natural world engage with the surroundings to shape an ecological complex-has lengthy been imperative to the general public conception of ecology and to expanding understanding of environmental degradation. during this booklet an eminent ecologist explains the surroundings proposal, tracing its evolution, describing how a variety of American and eu researchers contributed to its evolution, and discussing the explosive development of surroundings experiences. Golley surveys the advance of the atmosphere notion within the overdue 19th and early 20th centuries and discusses the coining of the time period atmosphere through the English ecologist Sir Arthur George Tansley in 1935. He then experiences how the yankee ecologist Raymond Lindeman utilized the concept that to a small lake in Minnesota and confirmed how the biota and the surroundings of the lake interacted in the course of the alternate of power. Golley describes how a seminal textbook on ecology written by means of Eugene P. Odum helped to popularize the surroundings suggestion and the way a variety of different scientists investigated its rules and released their effects. He relates how surroundings reports ruled ecology within the Sixties and have become a key portion of the foreign organic application biome stories within the United States-a software aimed toward "the betterment of mankind" particularly via conservation, human genetics, and enhancements within the use of typical assets; how a examine of watershed ecosystems in Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, blazed new paths in environment examine by means of defining the boundaries of the method in a ordinary approach; and the way present study makes use of the environment inspiration. all through Golley exhibits how the atmosphere inspiration has been formed across the world by means of either advancements in different disciplines and through personalities and politics.
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Additional resources for A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of the Parts
36, 276. Dumbroff, E. B. (1968). Some observations on the effect of nutrient supply on mycorrhizal development of pine. Plant Soil 28, 463. Ehrlich, H. , and Ehrlich, M. A. (1963). Electron microscopy of the sheath surrounding the haustorium of Erysiphe graminis. Phytopathology 53, 1378. Ehrlich, M. , Schäfer, J. , and Ehrlich, H. G. (1968). Lomasomes in wheat leaves infected by Puccinia graminis and P. recondita. Can. J. Bot. 46, 17. Elisson, L. (1968). Dependence of root growth on photosynthesis in Populus tremula.
Possible mechanism of penetration into host tissue. Wedge-shaped glycogen-rich hyphae in the middle lamella zone of host. Note apparent lysis of middle lamella ahead of the hypha, Pinus radiata. KMnO* fixation. Lead stain. FIG. 24. The hyphae appear to vacuolate, round off, and appear to push the host cells apart. Pinus wtdiata. K M n 0 4 fixation. Lead stain. 34 G. C. Marks and R. C. Foster but it could be a seasonal phenomenon or might be associated with the age of the trees. Horton and Keen (1966) have suggested that the secre tion of sugars by the host may repress synthesis of cellulases in fungal pathogens so that as long as the host supplied carbohydrate to the fungus it would be restricted to the intercellular spaces of the host.
The ultrastructure and development of septa in the hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani. Mycologia 55, 35. Brown, J. M. B. (1955). Ecological investigations: Shade and growth of oak seedlings. Rep. Forest Res. p. 24. Chilvers, G. A. (1968). Low power electron microscopy of the root cap region of eucalypt mycorrhizas. New Phytol. 67, 663. Chilvers, G. , and Pryor, L. D. (1965). The structure of eucalypt mycorrhizas. Aust. J. Bot. 13, 245. Chou, C. K. (1970). ) Tul. on cabbage cotyledons. Ann. Bot. ] 34, 189.
A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of the Parts by Frank B. Golley