Download e-book for kindle: A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory by Kenneth Ireland, Michael Rosen

By Kenneth Ireland, Michael Rosen

ISBN-10: 1475717792

ISBN-13: 9781475717792

ISBN-10: 1475717814

ISBN-13: 9781475717815

This well-developed, obtainable textual content info the historic improvement of the topic all through. It additionally offers wide-ranging assurance of vital effects with relatively hassle-free proofs, a few of them new. This moment variation includes new chapters that offer a whole evidence of the Mordel-Weil theorem for elliptic curves over the rational numbers and an outline of contemporary growth at the mathematics of elliptic curves.

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3. 1f P is an odd prime, p -1' a, and p -1' n, then if x n == a (P) is solvable, so is x n == a (pe) for ali e ~ 1. All these congruences have the same number of solutions. If n = 1, the assertion is trivial, so we may assume n ~ 2. Suppose that x n == a (pe) is solvable. Let Xo be a solution and set Xl = Xo + bpe. A short computation shows xi == xO + nbpex"o-l (pe + 1). We wish to solve xi == a (pe+ 1). This is equivalent to finding an integer b such that nx"o-lb == «a - x"o)/pe)(p). Notice that (a - x"o)/pe is an integer and that p-l'nx"o-l.

For a discussion of this problem and a good bibliography, see Erdos [31]. For other interesting results and problems see [76] and [12]. There exist many invesţigations into the existence of sequences of consecutive integers each of which is a kth power modulo p. Consider primes of the form kt + 1. A basic result due to A. Brauer asserts that if m is a given positive integer, then for alI primes p sufficient1y large there are m consecutive integers r, r + 1, ... , r + m - 1 alI of which are kth powers modulo p.

We leave the proof as an exercise. One begins by writing a (2 e ) and x == ( - 1)Y5 z (2 e ). 2 give a fairly satisfactory answer to the question; When is an integer a an nth power residue mod m? It is possible to go a bit further in some cases. 3. 1f P is an odd prime, p -1' a, and p -1' n, then if x n == a (P) is solvable, so is x n == a (pe) for ali e ~ 1. All these congruences have the same number of solutions. If n = 1, the assertion is trivial, so we may assume n ~ 2. Suppose that x n == a (pe) is solvable.

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A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory by Kenneth Ireland, Michael Rosen


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